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Gaston Leroux - Le Fantôme de l'Opéra

The Phantom of the Opera is a gothic horror novel written by Gaston Leroux. It was first published in parts in the french newspaper Le Gaulois from September 1909 to Janurary 1910. The first volume of the novel was published in April 1910. The novel is inspired by events at the Paris Opera House as well as a tale of the use of a former ballet pupil’s skeleton in an 1841 production of Der Freischütz. It has been adapted into a successful silent film in 1925 as well as a stage musical in 1986 by Andrew Lloyd Webber.

Synopsis: Edit

The novel opens at the Paris Opera house with a discussion of the phantom that haunts the house. The scene moves to a Gala where they are celebrating the retirement of the theatre manager. Christine Daae sings for the celebration. Her childhood friend, Raoul, listens to her and remember his love for her. After the gala, Christine and Raoul talk about her late father. Christine tells Raoul about the Angel of Music who comes to visit and trains her. She believes that her father sent him. Raoul searches for the spirit. and cannot find it. 

Soon after the Opera house opens Faust. Christine does not sing lead, even after the warning from the opera ghost. During the performance, Carlotta, the lead singer, croaks and the grand chandelier falls, killing a woman. Following the performance, Christine disappears. Two weeks later, Christine returns and Raoul learns she was with her Angel of Music. She attends the party with a guest called Red Death. Raoul and Christine fight. After the party, she disappears again.

Christine returns and tells Raoul about the encounters with the phantom, named Erik. She now has a small gold band on her ring finger for he only let her leave if she agreed to marry him. Raoul begs her to leave with him and she refuses They agree to a secret engagement. Christine fears that the Phantom already knows of this conversation.

During the next performance of Faust, Christine disappears for good. The phantom has taken her. Raoul partners with a Persian, who knows Erik from the past, and they descend into the cellars. Raoul and the Persian enters a room where they overhear Erik’s ultimatum to Christine: marry him or he will kill them and everyone in the opera. The Persian tells Raoul that they are in the torture chamber. Christine hears them through the wall and tells Raoul that Erik has been driven mad with love and is forcing her to marry her. Erik realizes that Raoul and the Persian is there and he turns on the torture chamber.

Christine is forced into a decision. She chooses to marry the Phantom and the room begins to flood, but she saves Raoul and the Persian. Afterwards, Erik visits the Persian and tells him that he is dying of love. He lifted his mask to give Christine a kiss, and she kisses him back. He has let Christine go to marry Raoul. He asks her to bury him with the gold ring after he dies and to place a notice in the paper that reads: “Erik is dead”.

List of Adaptations: Edit

Films: Edit

  • Das Phantom der Oper (1916, Germany—Greenbaum-Film), Screenplay: Greta Schröder, Director: Ernst Malay
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1925, USA—Universal Pictures), Screenplay: Elliot J. Clawson, Director:Rupert Julian
  • Song at Midnight (aka. Ye ban ge sheng) (1930, China—Xinhua Film Company), Screenplay: Ma-Xu Weibang, Director: Ma-Xu Webbing
  • Phantom of the Opera (1943, USA—Universal Pictures), Screenplay: Eric Taylor & Samuel Hoffestein, Director: Arthur Lupin
  • The Phantom of the Operetta (aka. El fantasma de la opereta) (1960, Mexico—Producciones Brooks), Screenplay: Juan García and Alfredo Ruanova, Director: Fernando Cortés
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1962, UK—Hammer Film Productions), Screenplay: Anthony Hinds, Director: Terence Fisher
  • Phantom of the Paradise (1974, USA—Harbor Productions), Screenplay: Brian De Palma, Director: Brian De Palma
  • The Munsters’ Revenge (1981, USA—Universal Pictures), Screenplay: Arthur Alsberg and Don Nelson, Director: Don Weis
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1983, USA—Robert Halmi), Screenplay: Sherman Yellen, Director: Robert Markowitz
  • El aullido del diablo (1987, Spain—Freemont-Nasch International), Screenplay: Paul Naschy, Director: Paul Naschy
  • Phantom of the Ritz (1988, USA—Sharpiro-Glickenhaus Entertainment), Screenplay: Tom Dempsey, Director: Allen Plone
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1989, USA—21st Century Film Corporation), Screenplay: , Director: Dwight H. Little
  • Phantom of the Mall: Eric’s Revenge (1989, USA—Fries Entertainment), Screenplay: Scott Schneid, Director: Richard Friedman
  • Ye ban ge sheng (1995, China—Mandarin Films), Screenplay: Roy Szeto and Bak-Ming Wong, Director: Ronny Yu
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1998, Italy—Medusa Films), Screenplay: Gérard Brach, Director: Dario Argento
  • Red Riding Hood Meets Frankenstein (2004, USA —N/A) Screenplay: Ricky Lewis Jr., Writer: Ricky Lewis Jr.
  • The Phantom of the Opera (2004, USA—Warner Bros.), Screenplay: Andrew Lloyd Webber and Joel Schumacher,Director: Joel Schumacher
  • The Phantom of the Opera at the Royal Albert Hall (2011, UK—REally Useful Theare Company), Writer: Andrew Lloyd Webber, Directors: Nick Morris and Laurence Connor
  • Love Never Dies (2012, UK—Really Useful Theatre Company) Screenplay: Andrew Lloyd Webber and Ben Elton, Directors: Brett Sullivan and Simon Phillips
  • Scooby-Doo! Stage Fright (2013, USA—Warner Bros. Animation) Screenplay: Douglas and Candie Langdale, Director: Victor cook
  • Creeper (2014, USA—Asylum House Productions), Screenplay: Evelyn Gabai and John Semper, Director: John Semper

Television Series/Single Television Episodes/Miniseries: Edit

  • Diff’rent Strokes, “Hooray for Hollywood: Part 1” (1984, USA: Season 6, Episode 16), Series Creators: Bernie Kukoff and Jeff Harris, Writers: Howard Leeds, Martin Cohan, and Blake Hunter, Directors: Gerren Keith and Leslie H. Martinson
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1990, USA—Saban Entertainment), Screenplay: Arthur Kopit, Director: Tony Richardson
  • Wishbone, “Pantin’ at the Opera” (1998, USA: Season 1, Episode 37),Series Creator: Rick Duffield, Writer: Adam Felber, Director: N/A
  • Ghouls (2010, USA—Wild Plum), Writer: Kris Simonian and Benjamin T. Ross, Director: Benjamin T. Ross
  • How to, Batman!, “How to Be a Creeper” (2010, :USA: Season 3, Episode 7), Series Creator: Gabriel Evans and Gregory Gustafson, Writer: Gabriel Evans, Director: Gabriel Evans

Graphic Novels/Comics/Illustrated Books: Edit

  • The Phantom of the Opera: Pop-Up Book (1988, USA), Writer: Frank Van Der Meer; Illustrator: N/A
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1989, ) Writer: Peter F. Neumeyer, Illustrator: Don Weller
  • TheTrap-Door Maker: A Prequel to the Phantom of the Opera (2008, N/A) Writer: Pete Bergman, Illustrator: Pete Bergman
  • Phantom of the Opera (2010, N/A) Writer: Joeming W. Dunn, Illustrator: Rod Espinosa
  • The Phantom of the Opera (Calico Illustrated Classics) (2010, N/A) Writer: Lisa Mullarkey Illustrator: Eric Scott Fisher

Plays/Musicals: Edit

  • Phantom of the Opera (1976, The Duke’s Playhouse) Dramatist: Ken Hill
  • Phantom of the Opera: A New Victorian Thriller (1979, N/A) Dramatist: Gene Traylor
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1986, West End) Dramatist: Andrew Lloyd Webber
  • The phantom of the Opera—the play: A new melodrama in two acts (1989, USA-S. French) Dramatists: John Kenley, Robert Noll, David Gooding
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1990/2013, Jovialities Entertainment Co.) Dramatist: JR Simons
  • The Phantom of the Opera (1994, Samuel French Ltd) Dramatist: Ken Hill
  • Love Never Dies (2010, Adelphi Theatre) Dramatist: Andrew Lloyd Webber

Novelizations/Young Adult Literature/Textual Adaptations: Edit

  • Murder at the Met (1984, USA) Author: David Black
  • Phantom of the Opera (Monsters series) (1987, USA) Author: Ian Thorne
  • The Phantom of the Opera (A Stepping Stone Book) (1989, ) Author: Kate McMullan
  • The Angel of the Opera: Sherlock Holmes Meets the Phantom of the Opera (1994, USA) Author: Sam Sicilian
  • Phantom: The Novel of His Life (1990, USA) Author: Susan Kay
  • Phantoms Don’t Drive Sports Cars (The Adventures of the Bailey School kids, #32) (1998, USA) Authors Debbie Dadey and Marcia T. Jones
  • Music of the Night (2001, N/A) Author: Suzy McKee Charnas
  • Angel of Music: Tales of the Phantom of the Opera (2006, USA) Author: Carrie Hernandez
  • Into the Light: A Phantom of the Opera Story (2006, ) Author: Debra P. Whitehead
  • The Phantom’s Opera’s (2007, N/A) Author: Sadie Montgomery
  • Out of the Darkness: The Phantom’s Journey (2007, N/A) Author: Sadie Montgomery
  • The Phantom’s Song (2008, ) Author: Sabrina Callahan
  • Madrigal: A Novel of Gaston Leroux’s Phantom of the Opera (2008, USA) Author: Jennifer Linforth
  • Letters to Erik: The Ghost’s Love Story (2008, USA) Author:An Wallace
  • The Sultan’s Favorite: A Phantom of the Opera Story (2009, N/A) Author: Anne Burnside
  • The Phantom’s Redemption (2009, USA) Author: Anne B. Caluwaert
  • In the Eye of the Beholder: A Novel of the Phantom of the Opera (2009, USA) Author: Sharon E. Cathcart
  • Abendlied: A novel of Gaston Leroux’s The Phantom of the Opera (2009, USA) Author: Jennifer Linforth
  • My Phantom: The Memoir of Christine Daeé (2009, N/A) Author: Anstance Tamplin
  • The Music of the Night (2010, USA) Author: Amanda Ashley
  • The Phantom of Valletta (2011, N/A) Author: Vicki Hopkins
  • ERIK A Sequel to Phantom of the Opera (2011, USA), Author: Stephanie Hanson
  • Phantom (2011, USA), Author: Susan Kay
  • Deception: A Phantom of the Opera Novel (2011, N/A) Author: Shirley Yoshinaka
  • Of Seraphim and Cherubim: An Alternative Tale of The Phantom of the Opera (2012, USA) Author: Sherri Compton-Meyers
  • The Phantom Diaries Series (2011, N/A) Author: Kailin Gow
  • The Opera Ghost Lives (2011, N/A) Author: Ann M. Kraft
  • The Red Diamond of Nadirijna (2011, N/A) Author: Ann M. Kraft
  • Rondeau: A Novel of Gaston Leroux’s the Phantom of the Opera (2011, USA) Author: Jennifer Linforth
  • Phantom: The True Story (2012, USA) Author: Rosario Abraham-Montengro
  • Phantom (Dark Musicals Trilogy Book 1) (2012, USA) Author: Laura DeLuca
  • The Phantom’s Legacy—Family Secret (2012, N/A) Author: Ann M. Craft
  • Unmasked (2012, N/A) Author: Michelle Marcos
  • Love Changes Everything: A Phantom of the Opera Novel (2012, N/A) Author: Kelley McQuinn
  • No Return: A Contemporary Phantom Tale (2012, N/A) Author: Christine Pope
  • Manifestations of a Phantom’s Soul: A Phantom of the Opera Story Collection (2012, USA) Author: Michelle Rodriguez
  • The Opera Ghost Unraveled (2012, USA) Author: Michelle Rodriguez
  • Costumes and Filigree: A Novel of the Phantom of the Opera (2012, USA) Author: Dayna Stevenson
  • Phantom Seduction (2012, N/A) Author: Virginia Wade
  • Masquerade (2013, USA) Author: Amanda Ashley
  • Transcend (2013, USA) Author: Cristine Fonseca
  • Chanson de l’Ange Series (2013, USA)Author: Paisley Swan Stewart
  • Siren of the Sea: A Phantom of the Opera Story (2013, N/A) Author:Ann Maggard
  • Sing for Me (2013, N/A) Author: Penelope Reece
  • Dies Irae (2013, N/A) Author: Chelsey A Rockwell-Román
  • The Angel’s Shadow: a novel of ‘The Phantom of the Opera’ (The Angels of Music Saga) (2014, N/A) Author: Louise Anne Bateman
  • Phantom Phantasia: Poetry for the Phantom of the Opera (2014, N/A) Author: E. A. Bucchianeri
  • In the Eye of the Storm: A Novel of the Phantom of the Opera (2014, N/A) Sharon E. Cathcart
  • Whispers in the Dark—The Phantom’s Lullaby (2014, N/A) Author Patti SassyAngel Chiappa
  • Of Metal and Wishes (2014, USA) Author:Sarah Fine
  • Unmasqued: An Erotic Novel of The Phantom of the Opera (2014, N/A) Author: Colette Gale
  • Phantom’s Dance (2014, N/A) Author: Lesa Howard
  • Master of the Opera Series (2014, USA) Author:Jeffe Kennedy
  • A Rose in Winter (2014, N/A) Author: Catherine Miller
  • Phantom Fire (2014, USA) Author: J. R. Keenan
  • The Secret Door: A Phantom of the Opera Novel (2014, USA), Author: J. M. Smith
  • Phantom in Time (2014, N/A) Author: Eugenia Riley
  • Master of Illusion Book One (Volume 1) (2014, N/A) Author: Anne Rouen
  • Of Dreams and Rusts (2015, USA) Author: Sarah Fine

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